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Author Putnam, Larry D.

Title Water-quality effects and characterization of indicators of onsite wastewater disposal systems in the east-central Black Hills area, South Dakota, 2006-08 [electronic resource] / by Larry D. Putnam, Galen K. Hoogestraat, and J. Foster Sawyer ; prepared in cooperation with the West Dakota Water Development District and the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

Imprint Reston, Va. : U.S. Geological Survey, 2008.

Copies

Location Call No. OPAC Message Status
 Axe Federal Documents Online  I 19.42/4-4:2008-5232    ---  Available
Description 1 online resource (viii, 115 p.) : ill., maps.
Series Scientific investigations report ; 2008-5232
Scientific investigations report ; 2008-5232.
Note Title from PDF title screen (viewed May 10, 2010).
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. 58-61).
Summary Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian.
Subject Water quality -- Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.)
Water quality -- South Dakota.
Sewage -- Environmental aspects -- Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.)
Sewage -- Environmental aspects -- South Dakota.
Added Author Hoogestraat, Galen K.
Sawyer, J. Foster.
South Dakota. West Dakota Water Development District.
South Dakota. Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Other Form: Putnam, Larry D. Water-quality effects and characterization of indicators of onsite wastewater disposal systems in the east-central Black Hills area, South Dakota, 2006-08 viii, 115 p. (DLC) 2009376139 (OCoLC)311056034
Gpo Item No. 0624-B-02 (online)
Sudoc No. I 19.42/4-4:2008-5232

 
    
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