"As many as two decades may be required to achieve natural regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) on mesic sites. However, when unplanned major disturbances affect desirable mixed-oak forests, both the amount of time and viable options available for influencing the composition of post-disturbance regeneration are reduced greatly. Salvage logging of dead or dying oaks and other valuable species followed by artificial regeneration of oak has been attempted following gypsy moth-induced mortality on the Allegheny Plateau in western Pennsylvania. We evaluated the use of tree shelters to protect planted northern red oak seedlings following salvage logging that resulted in a range of residual stand densities. This practice was common on the Allegheny National Forest in the early 1990's following widespread gypsy moth defoliation and subsequent mortality. A better understanding of this practice will enhance efforts to implement artificial regeneration of oak after unplanned major disturbance due to insects, disease, or factors such as storm damage. Artificial regeneration of oak using tree shelters can be effective when regeneration harvests are planned but natural oak regeneration is inadequate or lacking. This situation is common in mixed-oak forests of the Eastern United States"--Page [i].