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Author Kempe, Michael D.

Title Effects of cerium removal from glass on photovoltaic module performance and stability [electronic resource] : preprint / M.D. Kempe and T. Moricone, M. Kilkenny.

Imprint Golden, CO : National Renewable Energy Laboratory, [2009]


Location Call No. OPAC Message Status
 Axe Federal Documents Online  E 9.16:NREL/CP-520-44936    ---  Available
Description 1 online resource (12 p.) : col. ill.
Series Conference paper ; NREL/CP-520-44936
Conference paper (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.)) ; NREL/CP-520-44936.
Note Title from title screen (viewed September 10, 2009).
"Presented at the Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Solar Energy + Technology Conference, San Diego, California, August 2-7, 2009."
"September 2009."
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. 11-12).
Summary Photovoltaic modules are exposed to extremely harsh conditions of heat, humidity, high voltage, mechanical stress, thermal cycling, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The current qualification tests (e.g., IEC 61215) do not require sufficient UV exposure to evaluate lifespans of 30 years. Recently, photovoltaic panel manufacturers have been using glass that does not contain cerium. This has the advantage of providing about 1.3% to 1.8% more photon transmission, but potentially at the expense of long-term stability. The additional transmission of light in the 300 nm to 340 nm range can cause delamination to occur about 3.8 times faster. Similarly, UV radiation will cause polymeric encapsulants, such as ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA), to turn yellow faster, losing photon transmission. Silicones do not suffer from light-induced degradation as hydrocarbon-based polymers do; therefore, if silicone encapsulants are used, a 1.6% to 1.9% increase in photon transmission can be obtained from removal of Ce from glass, with no tradeoff in long-term stability. Additionally, antimony can be added to non-Ce-containing glass to further improve photon transmission (principally in the IR range) by an additional 0.4% to 0.7%; however, this does not significantly affect UV transmission, so the same UV-induced reliability concerns will still exist with common hydrocarbon-based encapsulants.
Subject Photovoltaic cells -- Design and construction.
Solar cells -- Materials.
Ultraviolet radiation.
Added Author Moricone, T.
Kilkenny, M.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.)
Gpo Item No. 0430-P-04 (online)
Sudoc No. E 9.16:NREL/CP-520-44936

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