Manufacturing process optimization to improve stability, yield, and efficiency of CdS/CdTe PV devices [electronic resource] : final report, December 2004 - January 2009 / W.S. Sampath, A. Enzenroth, and K. Barth.
Golden, Colo. : National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 
The reproducibility of CdTe device efficiency and stability has been demonstrated during long-duration operation of the system with a single charge loading for the CdS, CdTe, and CdCl2 process. A fixture for automated cooling of the substrate in vacuum has been designed, fabricated, installed, and tested. Significant advances to the modeling of large-area vapor sources and modeling of gas transport in the system have been made. Efforts to improve device efficiency and advance device characterization are under way. A process for removing the coated films to reduce the amount of solid waste has been developed.