Islamic Civilization -- See Also Civilization, Arab Here are entered works on the civilization of the Arab countries for all periods, or for the pre-Islamic or modern periods only. Works on the medieval civilization of the Middle East, North Africa and Arab Spain collectively are entered under Civilization, Islamic. Works on the civilization of the Islamic countries for all periods, or for the pre-Islamic or modern periods only, as well as non-Islamic culture during the medieval period, are entered under Islamic countries--Civilization. Modern works of a predominantly religious nature discussing the contemporary problems and prospects of Islam and desirable changes, including works which advocate a civilization or society based on the teachings of Islam, are entered under Islam--20th century.
Islamic Countries -- See Also the narrower term Arab countries Here are entered works treating collectively the Arabic-speaking countries of Asia and Africa, or of Asia only. Works on the region consisting of Asia west of Pakistan, northeastern Africa, and occasionally Greece and Pakistan are entered under Middle East.