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Author Defonseka, Chris.

Title Practical guide to flexible polyurethane foams / Chris Defonseka.

Imprint Shrewsbury : Smithers Rapra, 2013.

Copies

Location Call No. OPAC Message Status
 Axe Books 24x7 Engineering E-Book  Electronic Book    ---  Available
Description 1 online resource
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Includes index.
Print version record.
Summary Annotation Polyurethanes are very versatile and exciting materials of the plastics family. Although there are many types, the flexible and viscoelastic foams have opened up vast possibilities as viable business ventures and expanding applications, and have established themselves as an essential part of daily life, replacing traditional materials over the years. This book imparts a sound knowledge of flexible and viscoelastic polyurethane foams from their chemistry to calculations and formulating methodology for quality production. The author presents very valuable detailed information on foam manufacturing based on more than 40 years hands-on experience in the local and international situations. The detailed presentation of two manufacturing setups will greatly benefit entrepreneurs, medium-volume producers and large-volume manufacturers. For entrepreneurs, the innovative low-cost startup, high-profit, tried and tested methods will be very encouraging. The medium-to-large-volume producers will find the information provided interesting and practical to solve the inherent problems of excess wastage, better process control and plant efficiency, thereby enhancing profitability. Due to global environmental concerns, as polyurethane chemical components move from petroleum sources to bio-based renewable resources, developers are facing interesting challenges. For continued profitable production, challenges facing the foam machinery manufacturers will be to offer cost-effective, highly efficient and compatible machinery to producers. This book provides practical guidance in all aspects of the manufacture of flexible polyurethane foams, and is an ideal information source for students, teachers, producers and entrepreneurs.
Contents Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Brief History -- 1.1.1. Flexible Foams -- 1.1.2. Rigid Polyurethane Foams -- 1.1.3. Automotives -- 1.1.4. Elastomers -- 1.1.5. Insulation -- 1.1.6. Moulded Parts -- 1.1.7. Spray Roofing Systems -- 1.1.8. Speciality Urethane Systems -- 1.2. Types of Foams -- 1.3. Basic Foam Grades -- 1.4. Viscoelastic Foam Mattresses: Marketing Hype or Molecular Miracle? -- 1.5. Flexible Slabstock Foams -- 1.6. What is a Flexible Polyurethane Foam? -- 1.7. What is a Viscoelastic Foam? -- 1.8. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Foams -- 1.9. Physical Properties of Viscoelastic Foams -- 1.10. Performance Testing of Viscoelastic Foams -- 1.10.1. Reduction and Relief of Pressure -- 1.10.2. Hyper or Pseudo Effects? -- 1.10.3. Viscoelastic Foam: Summary -- 1.10.4. End Applications -- 2. Basic Chemistry -- 2.1. Brief Introduction -- 2.2. Organic Chemistry -- 2.2.1. Basics -- 2.2.2. History -- 2.2.3. Characteristics -- 2.2.4. Properties -- 2.2.5. Melting and Boiling Properties -- 2.2.6. Solubility -- 2.2.7. Nomenclature -- 2.2.8. Structural Presentation -- 2.3. Classification of Organic Compounds -- 2.3.1. Functional Groups -- 2.3.2. Aliphatic Compounds -- 2.3.3. Aromatic Compounds -- 2.3.4. Heterocyclic Compounds -- 2.3.5. Polymers -- 2.3.6. Organic Synthesis -- 2.3.7. Organic Reactions -- 2.4. Inorganic Chemistry -- 2.4.1. Industrial Inorganic Chemistry -- 2.5. Classification of Inorganic Chemistry -- 2.5.1. Coordination Compounds -- 2.5.2. Main Group Compounds -- 2.5.3. Transition Metal Compounds -- 2.5.4. Organometallic Compounds -- 2.5.5. Cluster Compounds -- 2.5.6. Bio-inorganic Compounds -- 2.5.7. Solid State Compounds -- 2.5.8. Qualitative Theories -- 2.5.9. Molecular Symmetry Group Theory -- 2.6. Basics of Analytical Chemistry -- 2.6.1. Qualitative Analyses -- 2.6.1.1. Flame Test -- 2.6.1.2. Gravimetric Analyses -- 2.6.1.3. Volumetric Analyses -- 2.6.1.4. Mass Spectrometry -- 2.6.1.5. Electrochemical Analyses -- 2.6.1.6. Microscopy -- 3. Basic Polymer Chemistry -- 3.1. What is a Polymer? -- 3.1.1. Polymer Synthesis -- 3.1.2. Modification of Natural Polymers -- 3.2. Polymer Properties -- 3.2.1. Monomers -- 3.2.2. Microstructure -- 3.2.3. Chain Length! -- 3.2.4. Molecular Mass (Weight) -- 3.2.5. Polymerisation -- 3.2.6. Condensation Polymerisation -- 3.3. Mechanical Properties -- 3.3.1. Tensile Strength -- 3.3.2. Young's Modulus of Elasticity -- 3.3.3. Melting Point -- 3.3.4. Glass Transition Temperature -- 3.3.5. Mixing Behaviour -- 3.3.6. Polymer Degradation -- 4. Polyurethane Raw Materials -- 4.1. Polyols -- 4.1.1. Graft Polyols -- 4.1.2. Isocyanates -- 4.1.3. Bio-polyols -- 4.2. Catalysts -- 4.3. Blowing. Agents -- 4.4. Surfactants -- 4.5. Methylene Chloride -- 4.6. Additives -- 4.6.1. Pigments -- 4.6.2. Fillers -- 4.6.3. Retardants -- 4.6.4. Anti-oxidants -- 4.6.5. Anti-static Agents -- 4.6.6. Cell Openers -- 4.6.7. Plasticisers -- 4.6.8. Anti-bacterial Agents -- 4.6.9. Ultraviolet Stabilisers -- 4.6.10. Colorants -- 4.6.11. Colour Basics -- 4.6.12. Foam Hardeners -- 4.6.13. Crosslinkers -- 4.6.14. Compatibilisers -- 4.7. Accessories -- 4.7.1. Kraft Paper -- 4.7.2. Machine-glazed Paper -- 4.7.3. Polyethylene-coated Paper -- 4.7.4. Peelable Kraft Paper -- 4.7.5. Plastic Films -- 4.7.6. Mould Release Agents -- 4.8. Summary -- 5. Properties and Foaming Technology of Polyurethane Foam -- 5.1. Properties of-Polyurethane Foam -- 5.1.1. Basic Physical Properties -- 5.1.2. Tension Test (Tensile Strength) -- 5.1.3. Tear Resistance -- 5.1.4. Airflow -- 5.1.5. Resilience -- 5.1.6. Fogging -- 5.1.7. Durability -- 5.2. In Industrial Applications -- 5.2.1. Foam is a Good Air Sealant -- 5.3. Closed Cell Foams -- 5.3.1. Foams have Structural Advantages -- 5.3.2. Foam usage in Sound Control -- 5.4. Foaming Technology -- 5.4.1. Raw Materials and Their Functions -- 5.4.2. Polyols -- 5.4.3. Di-isocyanate -- 5.4.4. Water -- 5.4.5. Auxiliary Blowing Agents -- 5.4.6. Catalysts -- 5.4.7. Silicone Surfactants -- 5.4.8. Graft Polyols -- 5.4.9. Extenders -- 5.4.10. Colourants -- 5.4.11. Fillers -- 5.4.12. Additives -- 5.5. Foaming Process -- 5.5.1. Mixing -- 5.5.2. Nucleation -- 5.5.3. Expansion -- 5.5.4. Cell Opening -- 5.5.5. Gelation -- 5.5.6. Curing -- 5.6. Storage of Foam Blocks -- 5.7. Cutting and Fabrication -- 5.8. Filled Foam -- 5.8.1. Type of Filler -- 5.8.2. How Much Filler can be used? -- 5.9. Effects of Changes in Physical Properties -- 5.10. Processing Difficulties -- 5.11. Description of Additional Equipment -- 5.12. Procedure -- 6. Foaming Calculations, Other Calculations and Formulations -- 6.1. Calculations -- 6.1.1. Density -- 6.1.2. Mixing Ratio -- 6.1.3. Isocyanate Index -- 6.1.4. Ratio Calculation -- 6.1.5. Pump Rates Per Minute versus Flow Rate -- 6.1.6. Machine Flow Rate versus Mould Volume -- 6.2. Calculations for Making Large Foam Blocks: Discontinuous Process -- 6.2.1. Calculation of Material Required -- 6.2.2. Calculating Raw Material Components -- 6.3. Typical Formulations -- 6.3.1. Conventional Foam (Density Range 16.0-32 kg/m3) -- 6.3.2. High-resilience Foams -- 6.3.3. Viscoelastic Foam -- 6.3.4. Slab Stock Foam (Continuous Foaming) -- 6.4. Calculating Indentation Force Deflection -- 6.5. Calculating Electrical Power -- 6.5.1. Basic Example as a Guideline -- 6.6. Calculating Water Requirements -- 6.7. Compressed Air -- 6.7.1. Air Pressure versus Volume Calculator -- 6.8. Financial Indicators -- 6.8.1. Breakeven Point -- 6.8.2. Return on Equity -- 6.8.3. Return on Assets -- 6.8.4. Gross Profit Margin -- 6.8.5. Cash Flow -- 6.8.6. Contribution Margin -- 6.8.7. Debt to Equity Ratio -- 6.9. Quick Performance Indicators -- 6.9.1. Return per Kilogramme -- 6.9.2. Cost per Kilogramme -- 6.9.3. Breakeven Analysis -- 6.10. Recommended Basic Foam Formulations -- 6.11. To Save Waste on Foam Buns (Blocks) -- 7. Plant Machinery, and Equipment -- 7.1. Mould Design -- 7.1.1. Design Philosophy -- 7.1.2. Defining Product Requirements -- 7.1.3. Loading Conditions -- 7.1.4. Environmental Conditions -- 7.1.5. Dimensional Requirements -- 7.1.6. Preliminary Computer-aided Design Model -- 7.1.7. Material Selection -- 7.1.8. Process Selection -- 7.1.9. Process Influences -- 7.1.10. Orientation of the Fina`l Product' -- 7.1.11. Computer Simulation -- 7.1.12. Shrinkage and Warping -- 7.1.13. Basic Moulds for Flexible Foams -- 7.2. Foaming Machinery and Equipment -- 7.2.1. Low-pressure Machines -- 7.2.2. High-pressure Machines -- 7.2.3. Images of Foaming Machines -- 7.3. Foam Cutting and Fabrication -- 7.3.1. Horizontal Cutting -- 7.3.2. Vertical Cutting -- 7.3.3. Specialised Cutting -- 8. Manufacturing Processes for Flexible Foams -- 8.1. Box Process for Small-volume Producers -- 8.1.1. Process -- 8.1.2. Advantages -- 8.1.3. Disadvantages -- 8.2. Discontinuous Process -- 8.2.1. Manual Process -- 8.2.2. Advantages -- 8.2.3. Disadvantages -- 8.3. Semi-automatic and Automatic Processes -- 8.3.1. Advantages -- 8.3.2. Disadvantages -- 8.4. Viscoelastic Discontinuous Block Foaming -- 8.5. Continuous Process -- 8.5.1. Advantages -- 8.5.2. Disadvantages -- 8.6. Maxfoam System -- 8.6.1. Basic Principles -- 8.6.2. Basic Features of the Maxfoam System -- 8.7. Vertifoam Vertical Foaming System -- 8.8. Varimax Continuous System -- 8.9. C-Max High-pressure System -- 8.10. CarDio Process -- 8.11. Viscoelastic Continuous Foaming -- 8.12. Laboratory-scale Production -- 8.13. Inherent Waste Factors -- 8.14. Moulded Flexible Polyurethane Foams -- 8.14.1. Component A -- 8.15. Effects of Temperature on Diphenylmethane Di-isocyanate -- 8.16. Polyol Blends -- 8.17. Basic Chemical Reactions -- 8.18. Shipping Containers for Component Systems -- 8.19. Checking for Water Contamination -- 8.20. Unloading and Storage of Chemicals -- 8.21. Preparing for Production -- 8.21.1. Filling the Day Tanks -- 8.21.2. Calibration of Processing Equipment -- 8.21.3. Foam Re-activities -- 8.21.4. Throughput -- 8.21.5. Free Rise Density -- 8.21.6. Foam Structure -- 8.21.7. Filling the Moulds -- 8.21.8. Pouring Pattern Tips -- 8.21.9. About Moulds -- 8.21.10. Mould-release Agents -- 8.21.11. In-mould Coatings -- 8.21.12. Moulding with Inserts -- 8.21.13. Mould Clamping -- 8.21.14. Mould Cleaning -- 8.21.15. Flushing the Mixhead -- 8.21.16. Lead-lag -- 8.21.17. Recharging Day Tanks -- 8.22. Examples of Typical Processing -- 8.22.1. Material Storage -- 8.22.2. Handling of Raw Material -- 8.22.3. Moulds -- 8.22.4. Mixing and Weighing Procedures -- 8.22.5. Tips for Minimising Waste -- 9. Basic Safety Factors -- 9.1. Buildings -- 9.2. Storage of Raw Materials -- 9.3. Production -- 9.4. Safety Provisions -- 9.5. Basics of Spill Management -- 9.6. Recommended Safety Equipment -- 9.7. Handling Precautions -- 9.8. Health and Industrial Hygiene -- 9.8.1. Polyols -- 9.8.2. Isocyanates and Prepolymers -- 9.8.3. Component Systems -- 9.8.4. Other Raw Materials -- 9.9. Spill Management -- 10. Setting-up a Manufacturing Plant for an. Entrepreneur -- 10.1. Example A: Manual Operation -- 10.1.1. Raw Materials -- 10.1.2. Moulds -- 10.1.3. Cutting and Fabrication.
Note continued: 10.1.4. Hot-wire Cutting Machine -- 10.1.5. Production Method -- 10.2. Example B: Making Large Foam Blocks -- 10.2.1. Foaming Systems -- 10.3. Description of a Typical Semi-automatic Batch Foaming Plant -- 10.3.1. Foaming Machine -- 10.3.2. Foam Cutting Machines -- 10.3.2.1. One Circular (Carousel) Cutting Machine -- 10.3.2.2. Vertical Cutting Machine -- 10.3.3. Foam-shredding Machine -- 10.4. Fully Automatic Operation -- 10.4.1. Production (Manual or Semi-automatic) -- 11. Manufacturing Plants for Large-Volume Producers -- 11.1. Planned Production -- 11.2. Location and Factory Buildings -- 11.3. Storage of Raw Materials -- 11.3.1. Storage Conditions -- 11.3.2. Tank Room -- 11.4. Trough Paper -- 11.5. General Machinery -- 11.6. Basic Equipment -- 11.7. Utilities -- 11.8. Plant Layout -- 11.9. In-house Laboratory -- 11.10. Quality Control -- 11.11. Safety Systems -- 11.12. Foam Production -- 11.13. Foam Cutting and Fabrication -- 11.14. Recycling of Foam Waste -- 12. Recommendations for Process Efficiency -- 12.1. Basic Laboratory Equipment -- 12.2. Recommendations for the Efficiency of Foam Plants -- 12.1.1. Key Factors on a Production Floor -- 12.2.2. Preventive Maintenance in Foam Plants -- 12.3. Guidelines for a Quality Control System -- 12.3.1. What is a Control Chart? -- 12.3.2. What is an X-R Chart? -- 12.3.3. What is a P Chart? -- 12.4. General Recommendations for Troubleshooting.
Language English.
Subject Polyurethanes.
Foamed materials.
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING -- Chemical & Biochemical.
Foamed materials. (OCoLC)fst00928486
Polyurethanes. (OCoLC)fst01070827
Genre/Form Electronic books.
ISBN 9781847359759 (electronic bk.)
1847359752 (electronic bk.)
1299660312 (electronic bk.)
9781299660311 (electronic bk.)
1847359744
9781847359742
1628700416
9781628700411
9781847359742 (pbk.)
Standard No. AU@ 000053309148
DEBBG BV043067077
DEBBG BV044189297
DEBSZ 42996224X
DEBSZ 431443785
NZ1 15195084

 
    
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